How do you rate Gorbachev?
Gorbachev died on August 30, 2022, at the age of 91.
For this important political figure who personally ended the behemoth of the Soviet Union, the key terminator of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, its historical significance is extremely huge and its influence is extremely far-reaching. The Russian-Ukrainian war, the Crimea in 2014, the Russian-Ukrainian war in 2022, and the confrontation between North Korea and South Korea in 2022 are all humming at the end of the Soviet Union’s failure to clean up.
Out of the simple emotional cognition of "eat the country's food, but smash the country's pot", most Chinese people hate Gorbachev very much, thinking he is a traitor and a heartless man, but the destruction of the Soviet Union cannot be entirely blamed on Gorbachev. Erbachev alone.
The Soviet Union is an unprecedented political system that has emerged in human beings. It has a certain experimental nature. It is inevitable to make mistakes, and it has always stumbled on the road of growth. , and then fell into bureaucratic rigidity and hegemony during the Brezhnev period, which gradually broke the hearts of allies and friends. Finally, the United States, which had survived the two major hammers of the Vietnam War and the oil crisis, led the team to attack both inside and outside. The Soviet Union's finances collapsed, and it happened that people were getting old and weak. When they were handed over to Gorbachev, it was already a powerless mess. The common people could not eat enough food, and their spiritual beliefs disappeared. It is already an impossible task to stabilize the Soviet Union.
Generally, we call the three major sinners of the collapse of the Soviet Union: Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Gorbachev. Gorbachev should not bear all the blame, but the Soviet Union disintegrated so quickly and so ruthlessly, he
There are indeed unavoidable responsibilities.
If it is only counted as the crime of disintegration, I think Khrushchev and Brezhnev are more guilty, and Gorbachev's fault is to push the process too fast, making the Soviet countries not ready to accept the impact Prepare for the great suffering of the people.
During the Khrushchev period, the severing of allies with China was the most important step in the Soviet Union's demise. As a student of American industrialization, the Soviet Union controlled population, natural resources, and technological levels at a certain distance from the United States. After all the resources are exhausted, it will be difficult to compete with the European and American world. If the huge population and resources of China at that time can be mobilized, China's industrial upgrading can be mobilized, and China can grow together. That is the pattern that a grand strategist should have. The alliance, even if it leads to a dead end, also makes the Chinese suffer 18 years of hardships in life. It is a lose-lose choice.
In order to please the bureaucracy, Brezhnev started the bureaucratic rigid operation, which made the Soviet bureaucrats separate from the masses and became a privileged class. The people gradually diverged from the CPSU. The amount of natural gas increased from 31 million tons in 1970 to 312 million tons in 1980, natural gas increased from 9.1 billion cubic meters to 156 billion cubic meters, and the Soviet Union's financial dependence on energy soared from 15% to 53%. Making a fortune from it, the surplus wealth overwhelmed the Soviet Union, not noticing the simultaneous political and economic stagnation, but rushed into Afghanistan, financed Vietnam's hegemony, and exhausted the country.
When China and the United States established diplomatic relations in 1979, the Soviet Union lost the last chance to save itself. The United States suppressed oil prices, lowered the US exchange rate, China slammed Vietnam, and Afghanistan dragged the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union's finances were slamming. When finances were good, all problems were not problems. When finances were bad, all problems were magnified tenfold. When the agent Putin returned to Moscow from Eastern Europe in the 1980s, everyone could only queue for a few hours. Just got meat.
After the death of several old men in a row, Gorbachev finally came to power. After the devastation of the previous tenures, the nation had long since broken, the economy had already collapsed, the officials had long been privileged, and the people had long been hungry. What awaited him was only the question of when the Soviet Union would die. It's not a matter of dying.
Gorbachev's mistake was that he let the Soviet Union die too hard, die too fast, the entire country did not give time to buffer from ideology to economic reforms, and did not need the special zone to conduct experiments first, and then sum up experience and lessons, Directly spread out across the country, the Soviet people suffered an unforgettable economic avalanche, and the wealth of the Soviet Union fell into the hands of Anglo-American lackeys and local oligarchs. Putin's power regime.
"Towards a more secure, just and humane future" envisioned by Gorbachev did not happen at all. The miserable life of the people when the Soviet Union disintegrated made the people miserable to the point of lack of dignity, Gorbachev must Take responsibility.
But this responsibility cannot be completely said to belong to Gorbachev alone, but to the entire Soviet bureaucracy. Become the chairman of a private company.
From the 2000s to the 2010s, in the past 20 years on the Chinese Internet, there is often a word to whitewash the pain of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, called "the labor pains of democracy". The pains that Russia, Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan have experienced in the past few decades are not pains. It's a never-ending pain.